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Challenges faced in managing the rhino-cerebral mucormycosis during COVID-19 pandemic in resource limited settings

History of use of antibiotics, steroids, antivirals, biologicals, and other complementary treatments was sought. Patients were investigated for mucor confirmation using a nasal swab KOH mount, nasal endoscopy with biopsy, and radiological investigations were done to assess the extent. They will quickly relieve the inflammation in the hip and have a positive effect on reducing the pain.

  • It is important to remember that a child can have several colds or short sinus infections, with complete recovery in between.
  • Nasal symptoms in children can come and go, or sometimes they can be there all the time.
  • Industrial oxygen use is presumed to be one factor related to the abrupt surge in this disease, because there is a dissimilarity in the manufacturing of both industrial and oxygen used for medical purposes.

29 (6%) were vaccinated and 435 (94%) were non-vaccinated. Steroid injection into the hip is the last-line medical treatment for your hip pain. However, you should be very careful about the medical treatment you are taking for your illness. You need to consult your doctor about whether you need a steroid injection or not.


You will not notice your symptoms improve straight away when you first start using budesonide nasal spray. It takes a few days for budesonide to start working but can take several weeks to reach its full effect. Very few people have serious side effects when using budesonide nasal spray. If you have budesonide nasal spray on prescription, your doctor will tell you how often to use the nasal spray and when to change your dose.

  • Maybe because we are used to rhinitis being there for a week or so after a cold and then going away that people tend to play down rhinitis.
  • You may wish to read the ENT UK patient information on nasal polyps.
  • Most adults and children aged 6 years and over can use budesonide nasal spray.
  • When the nose and sinuses are both inflamed, this is called rhinosinusitis.
  • It can take a little longer to work than antihistamine sprays but the effects last for longer.
  • In 162 patients, the KOH mount was positive (Figure 3), and 83 were histopathology positive.

However, the effect of the injection may last for as long as 6 weeks to 6 months. The steroid injections do not help cure the disease but can provide proper time for the rehabilitation process. In this article find out about all the common side effects of steroid injections and all the best available alternative injections to repair hip conditions. Doctors usually prescribe steroid drugs to the hip (buttock) mainly because of their anti-inflammatory effects.

The impact of dehorning on the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and the evaluation of novel anti-poaching tactics

If your child’s symptoms have not cleared up after six to twelve weeks of medical treatment, the ENT specialist may wish to arrange a special scan of your child’s sinuses, called a CT scan. COVID-19 was confirmed in patients by RT-PCR or rapid antigen test (RAT) from samples taken from the nasopharynx. Individuals presenting with mucormycosis directly without any previous history of COVID were also included in our study.

Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis in diabetes patients with COVID-19

Out of the 464 patients, 417 (90%) did not have a history of mask reuse and 47 (10%) did have a history of mask reuse. 32 (7%) individuals had a history of treatment with alternative medicine during COVID (Table 3). Out of 464 patients, 287 (62%) were post COVID, 15 (3%) were COVID antigen negative, and 162 (35%) did not have a history of COVID (of which 120 were antibody positive).

They do so by decreasing the activity of your body’s natural defense system against any infection or illness. If the steroid spray makes your child’s symptoms better, it is important to keep using it for the long term. As it is a chronic condition, CRS needs long-term treatment.

Chronic Rhinosinusitis

You may wish to read the ENT UK patient information on endoscopic sinus surgery for more details. There is a group of medications that are licenced for relieving the symptoms of rhinitis especially in patients with asthma. This group, called antileukotrienes can be very effective.

Training for too long, without paying heed to the other essential factors like nutrition and rest can cause excessive stress to the body and hamper the process of muscle repair and recovery. A positive mental outlook, a healthy lifestyle and enough time to pursue other interests and relax all help to lower stress hormones and promote the optimal functioning of all the body systems. Post-exercise eating is key to accelerating muscle recovery, reducing fatigue and providing all the raw material needed for regrowth of muscle tissue.